A systematic review comparing the evidence for kidney function outcomes between oral antidiabetic drugs for type 2 diabetes.

Wilkinson, S.V. ; Tomlinson, L.A. ; Iwagami, M. ; Stirnadel-Farrant, H.A. ; Smeeth, L. ; Douglas, I. ;
A systematic review comparing the evidence for kidney function outcomes between oral antidiabetic drugs for type 2 diabetes.
Wellcome Open Res, 2018; 3:74

Background: The development of kidney disease is a serious complication among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, associated with substantially increased morbidity and mortality. ¬†We aimed to summarise the current evidence for the relationship between treatments for type 2 diabetes and long-term kidney outcomes, by conducting a systematic search and review of relevant studies. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase and Web of Science, between 1st January 1980 and 15th May 2018 for published clinical trials and observational studies comparing two or more classes of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes. We included people receiving oral antidiabetic drugs. Studies were eligible that; (i) compared two or more classes of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes; (ii) reported kidney outcomes as primary or secondary outcomes; (iii) included more than 100 participants; and (iv) followed up participants for 48 weeks or more. Kidney-related outcome measures included were Incidence of chronic kidney disease, reduced eGFR, increased creatinine, ‘micro’ and ‘macro’ albuminuria. Results: We identified 15 eligible studies, seven of which were randomised controlled trials and eight were observational studies. Reporting of specific renal outcomes varied widely. Due to variability of comparisons and outcomes meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of comparisons between treatment with metformin or sulfonylurea indicated that metformin was associated with better renal outcomes. Little evidence was available for recently introduced treatments or commonly prescribed combination therapies. Conclusions: Comparative evidence for the effect of treatments for type 2 diabetes on renal outcomes, either as monotherapy or in combination is sparse.