Designing Epidemiology Studies to Determine the Incidence and Prevalence of Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis (EPS).

Nitsch, D. Davenport, A.
Perit Dial Int, 2015; 35(7):678-82.

The reported incidence and prevalence of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) varies markedly between North America, Europe, Japan, and Australia. Although this could reflect differences in clinical practice patterns and access to transplantation as there is no current test for early detection, and some patients may present many years after discontinuation of peritoneal dialysis (PD), there are concerns about under-reporting, particularly for those with milder forms. Currently, only PD vintage has been identified as a significant risk factor for developing EPS, although some patients can develop EPS within months of starting PD. As such, there is a need for epidemiological studies to determine the incidence and prevalence of EPS to allow for patient education and counselling in terms of dialysis modality choice and length of treatment. In addition, carefully designed epidemiological studies could potentially allow for the identification of risk factors and bio-markers that could then be used to identify patients at increased risk of developing EPS in the future. Typically, studies to date have been underpowered with inadequate longitudinal follow-up. We review the different types of epidemiological studies and provide information as to the number of patients to be recruited and the duration of follow-up required to determine the incidence and prevalence of EPS.