Risk factors for developing acute kidney injury in older people with diabetes and community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based UK cohort study.
Jain A, McDonald HI, Nitsch D, Tomlinson L, Thomas SL.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is being increasingly recognised in ageing populations. There are a paucity of data about AKI risk factors among older individuals with diabetes and infections, who are at particularly high risk of AKI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for developing acute kidney injury (AKI) amongst older patients with diabetes and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in England, and whether the impact of underlying kidney function varied with age.
This was a population-based retrospective cohort study over 7 years (01/04/2004-31/3/2011) using electronic health records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics. The study population comprised individuals with diabetes aged ≥65 years with CAP. Associations between demographic, lifestyle factors, co-morbidities and medications and development of AKI within 28 days of CAP were explored in a logistic regression model.
Among 3471 patients with CAP and complete covariate data, 298 patients developed subsequent AKI. In multivariable analyses, factors found to be independently associated with AKI included: male sex (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.56 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.04), hypertension (aOR1.36 95% CI 1.01-1.85), being prescribed either angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II-receptor-blockers (aOR: 1.59 95% CI: 1.19-2.13), or insulin (aOR: 2.27 95% CI: 1.27-4.05), presence of proteinuria (aOR 1.27 95% CI 0.98-1.63), and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The odds of AKI were more graded amongst older participants aged ≥80 years compared to those of younger age: for eGFR of ≤29 mL/min/1.73m2 (vs 60 ml/min/1.73m2) aOR: 5.51 95% CI 3.28-9.27 and for eGFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73m2 1.96 95% CI 1.30-2.96, whilst any eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 was associated with approximately 3-fold increase in the odds of AKI amongst younger individuals (p-value for interaction = 0.007).
The identified risk factors should help primary care and hospital providers identify high risk patients in need of urgent management including more intensive monitoring, and prevention of AKI following pneumonia.