Severe mental illness and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom.

Iwagami, M. ; Mansfield, K.E. ; Hayes, J.F. ; Walters, K. ; Osborn, D.P. ; Smeeth, L. ; Nitsch, D. ; Tomlinson, L.A. ;
Severe mental illness and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom.
Clin Epidemiol, 2018; 10:421-429

We investigated the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients with severe mental illness (SMI).

We identified patients with SMI among all those aged 25-74 registered in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink as on March 31, 2014. We compared the prevalence of CKD (two measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for ≥3 months) and renal replacement therapy between patients with and without SMI. For patients with and without a history of lithium prescription separately, we used logistic regression to examine the association between SMI and CKD, adjusting for demographics, lifestyle characteristics, and known CKD risk factors.

The CKD prevalence was 14.6% among patients with SMI and a history of lithium prescription (n = 4,295), 3.3% among patients with SMI and no history of lithium prescription (n = 24,101), and 2.1% among patients without SMI (n = 2,387,988; P < 0.001). The prevalence of renal replacement therapy was 0.23%, 0.15%, and 0.11%, respectively (P = 0.012). Compared to patients without SMI, the fully adjusted odds ratio for CKD was 6.49 (95% CI 5.84-7.21) for patients with SMI and a history of lithium prescription and 1.45 (95% CI 1.34-1.58) for patients with SMI and no history of lithium prescription. The higher prevalence of CKD in patients with SMI may, in part, be explained by more frequent blood testing as compared to the general population.

CKD is identified more commonly among patients with SMI than in the general population.