Ian Douglas

I initially trained in physiology and pharmacology, but having decided lab work wasn’t for me, I applied for any job I was qualified for! I found myself at the UK MHRA working on the side effects of medicines and became fascinated by the formal process of studying these effects using routine healthcare data. I then spent time at GlaxoSmithKline working on the safety of respiratory and HIV medicines, before deciding to study epidemiology at LSHTM so I could actually do the kinds of studies I was reading. That was in 2004, and I’ve been here ever since, mostly investigating unintended effects of medications, but also looking at the intended effects of interventions for obesity; both drugs and surgery. I use both primary care, and linked secondary sources of data for research and have an interest in self-controlled study designs.

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Related Publications

Risk of acute liver injury associated with use of antibiotics. Comparative cohort and nested case-control studies using two primary care databases in Europe.

Brauer, R. ; Douglas, I. ; Garcia Rodriguez, L.A. ; Downey, G. ; Huerta, C. ; de Abajo, F. ; Bate, A. ; Feudjo Tepie, M. ; de Groot, M.C. ; Schlienger, R. ; Reynolds, R. ; Smeeth, L. ; Klungel, O. ; Ruigómez, A. ;
Risk of acute liver injury associated with use of antibiotics. Comparative cohort and nested case-control studies using two primary care databases in Europe.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2016; 25 Suppl 1:29-38

Case-only designs for studying the association of antidepressants and hip or femur fracture.

de Groot, MC. Candore, G. Uddin, MJ. Souverein, PC. Ali, MS. Belitser, SV. Huerta, C. Groenwold, RH. Alvarez, Y. Slattery, J. Korevaar, J. Hoes, AW. Roes, KC. de Boer, A. Douglas, IJ. Schlienger, RG. Reynolds, R. Klungel, OH. Gardarsdottir, H.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2016; 25 Suppl 1:103-113.

Incidence of adult Huntington’s disease in the UK: a UK-based primary care study and a systematic review.

Wexler, NS. Collett, L. Wexler, AR. Rawlins, MD. Tabrizi, SJ. Douglas, I. Smeeth, L. Evans, SJ. 
BMJ Open, 2016; 6(2):e009070.

The Prevalence of Huntington’s Disease.

Rawlins, M.D. ; Wexler, N.S. ; Wexler, A.R. ; Tabrizi, S.J. ; Douglas, I. ; Evans, S.J. ; Smeeth, L. ;
The Prevalence of Huntington’s Disease.
Neuroepidemiology, 2016; 46(2):144-153

Cardiovascular outcomes associated with use of clarithromycin: population based study.

Wong, AY. Root, A. Douglas, IJ. Chui, CS. Chan, EW. Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Y. Siu, CW. Smeeth, L. Wong, IC.
BMJ, 2016; 352:h6926.

Bariatric Surgery in the United Kingdom: A Cohort Study of Weight Loss and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Clinical Care.

Douglas, IJ. Bhaskaran, K. Batterham, RL. Smeeth, L. 
PLoS Med, 2015; 12(12):e1001925.

Acute Cardiovascular Events after Herpes Zoster: A Self-Controlled Case Series Analysis in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Older Residents of the United States.

Minassian, C. Thomas, SL. Smeeth, L. Douglas, I. Brauer, R. Langan, SM.
PLoS Med, 2015; 12(12):e1001919

Herpes zoster, acute cardiovascular events and the role of zoster vaccination.

Minassian, C.; Thomas, S.; Smeeth, L.; Douglas, I.; Brauer, R.; Langan, S.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 2015; 135:S32-S32.

Risk of pancreatic cancer associated with use of incretin-based therapy and other glucose-lowering agents: a nationwide case-control study in Denmark

Thomsen, R.W.; Christensen, D.H.; Kahlert, J.; Knudsen, S.T.; Pedersen, L.; Norrelund, H.; Dekkers, O.M.; Douglas, I.; Marchesini, G.; Smeeth, L.; Moller, N.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Jorgensen, J.O.; Sorensen, H.T.
Risk of pancreatic cancer associated with use of incretin-based therapy and other glucose-lowering agents: a nationwide case-control study in Denmark
Diabetologia, 2015; 58:S8-S9

The risk of acute liver injury among users of antibiotic medications: a comparison of case-only studies.

Brauer, R. ; Ruigómez, A. ; Klungel, O. ; Reynolds, R. ; Feudjo Tepie, M. ; Smeeth, L. ; Douglas, I. ;
The risk of acute liver injury among users of antibiotic medications: a comparison of case-only studies.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2015;

Glitazone Treatment and Incidence of Parkinson’s Disease among People with Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Brauer, R. Bhaskaran, K. Chaturvedi, N. Dexter, DT. Smeeth, L. Douglas, I. 
PLoS Med, 2015; 12(7):e1001854.

Prevalence of antibiotic use: a comparison across various European health care data sources.

Brauer, R. Ruigómez, A. Downey, G. Bate, A. Garcia Rodriguez, LA. Huerta, C. Gil, M. de Abajo, F. Requena, G. Alvarez, Y. Slattery, J. de Groot, M. Souverein, P. Hesse, U. Rottenkolber, M. Schmiedl, S. de Vries, F. Tepie, MF. Schlienger, R. Smeeth, L. Douglas, I. Reynolds, R. Klungel, O.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2016;25 Suppl 1:11-20.

BMI and risk of dementia in two million people over two decades: a retrospective cohort study

Qizilbash, N. Gregson, J. Johnson, ME.; Pearce, N. Douglas, I. Wing, K. Evans, SJW. Pocock, SJ.
Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2015; 3(6):431-436.

Do case-only designs yield consistent results across design and different databases? A case study of hip fractures and benzodiazepines.

Requena, G. Logie, J. Martin, E. Boudiaf, N. González González, R. Huerta, C. Alvarez, A. Webb, D. Bate, A. García Rodríguez, LA. Reynolds, R. Schlienger, R. Gardarsdottir, H. de Groot, M. Klungel, OH. de Abajo, F. Douglas, IJ. 
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2015;25 Suppl 1:79-87.

The effect of sibutramine prescribing in routine clinical practice on cardiovascular outcomes: a cohort study in the United Kingdom.

Hayes, J.F.; Bhaskaran, K.; Batterham, R.; Smeeth, L.; Douglas, I.;
The effect of sibutramine prescribing in routine clinical practice on cardiovascular outcomes: a cohort study in the United Kingdom.
Int J Obes (Lond), 2015;

Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and Risk of Malignant Melanoma: Matched Cohort Study Using Primary Care Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

Matthews, A. ; Langan, S.M. ; Douglas, I.J. ; Smeeth, L. ; Bhaskaran, K. ;
Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and Risk of Malignant Melanoma: Matched Cohort Study Using Primary Care Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.
PLoS Med, 2016; 13(6):e1002037

Latest trends in ADHD drug prescribing patterns in children in the UK: prevalence, incidence and persistence.

Beau-Lejdstrom, R. ; Douglas, I. ; Evans, S.J. ; Smeeth, L. ;
Latest trends in ADHD drug prescribing patterns in children in the UK: prevalence, incidence and persistence.
BMJ Open, 2016; 6(6):e010508

Evaluation of the risk of cardiovascular events with clarithromycin using both propensity score and self-controlled study designs.

Root, A.A. ; Wong, A.Y. ; Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Y. ; Smeeth, L. ; Bhaskaran, K. ; Evans, S.J. ; Brauer, R. ; Wong, I.C. ; Navaratnam, V. ; Douglas, I. ;
Evaluation of the risk of cardiovascular events with clarithromycin using both propensity score and self-controlled study designs.
Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2016;

Association between oral fluoroquinolones and seizures: A self-controlled case series study.

Chui, C.S. ; Chan, E.W. ; Wong, A.Y. ; Root, A. ; Douglas, I.J. ; Wong, I.C. ;
Association between oral fluoroquinolones and seizures: A self-controlled case series study.
Neurology, 2016;

Self controlled case series methods: an alternative to standard epidemiological study designs.

Petersen, I. ; Douglas, I. ; Whitaker, H. ;
Self controlled case series methods: an alternative to standard epidemiological study designs.
BMJ, 2016; 354:i4515

Optimising case detection within UK electronic health records: use of multiple linked databases for detecting liver injury.

Wing, K. ; Bhaskaran, K. ; Smeeth, L. ; van Staa, T.P. ; Klungel, O.H. ; Reynolds, R.F. ; Douglas, I. ;
Optimising case detection within UK electronic health records: use of multiple linked databases for detecting liver injury.
BMJ Open, 2016; 6(9):e012102

OS 04-07 THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF 4TH LINE ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE AGENTS IN PATIENTS WITH RESISTANT HYPERTENSION: A META-ANALYSIS.

Sinnott, S.J. ; Root, A. ; Mathur, R. ; Mansfield, K. ; Tomlinson, L. ; Douglas, I. ;
OS 04-07 THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF 4TH LINE ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE AGENTS IN PATIENTS WITH RESISTANT HYPERTENSION: A META-ANALYSIS.
J Hypertens, 2016; 34 Suppl 1 – ISH 2016 Abstract Book:e56-e57

Comparative effectiveness of fourth-line anti-hypertensive agents in resistant hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sinnott, S.J. ; Tomlinson, L.A. ; Root, A.A. ; Mathur, R. ; Mansfield, K.E. ; Smeeth, L. ; Douglas, I.J. ;
Comparative effectiveness of fourth-line anti-hypertensive agents in resistant hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2016;

Oral Fluoroquinolone Use and Retinal Detachment.

Douglas, I.J. ; Root, A. ; Krishnan, B. ;
Oral Fluoroquinolone Use and Retinal Detachment.
JAMA Ophthalmol, 2016;

OS 04-07 THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF 4TH LINE ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE AGENTS IN PATIENTS WITH RESISTANT HYPERTENSION: A META-ANALYSIS.

Sinnott, S.J. ; Root, A. ; Mathur, R. ; Mansfield, K. ; Tomlinson, L. ; Douglas, I. ;
OS 04-07 THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF 4TH LINE ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE AGENTS IN PATIENTS WITH RESISTANT HYPERTENSION: A META-ANALYSIS.
J Hypertens, 2016; 34 Suppl 1 – ISH 2016 Abstract Book:e56-e57

Pharmacoepidemiology for nephrologists: do proton pump inhibitors cause chronic kidney disease?

Tomlinson, L.A. ; Fogarty, D.G. ; Douglas, I. ; Nitsch, D. ;
Pharmacoepidemiology for nephrologists: do proton pump inhibitors cause chronic kidney disease?
Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2017;

Population trends in the 10-year incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the UK: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2004-2014.

Mathur, R. ; Bhaskaran, K. ; Edwards, E. ; Lee, H. ; Chaturvedi, N. ; Smeeth, L. ; Douglas, I. ;
Population trends in the 10-year incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the UK: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2004-2014.
BMJ Open, 2017; 7(2):e014444

Propensity score analysis with partially observed covariates: How should multiple imputation be used?

Leyrat, C. ; Seaman, S.R. ; White, I.R. ; Douglas, I. ; Smeeth, L. ; Kim, J. ; Resche-Rigon, M. ; Carpenter, J.R. ; Williamson, E.J. ;
Propensity score analysis with partially observed covariates: How should multiple imputation be used?
Stat Methods Med Res, 2017; :962280217713032

Validation of asthma recording in electronic health records: protocol for a systematic review.

Nissen, F. ; Quint, J.K. ; Wilkinson, S. ; Mullerova, H. ; Smeeth, L. ; Douglas, I.J. ;
Validation of asthma recording in electronic health records: protocol for a systematic review.
BMJ Open, 2017; 7(5):e014694

Related News

2 Jun

Wellcome Trust Biomedical Vacation Scholarship awarded

02 Jun 2017

Promoting Research amongst Undergraduate Students Dr Sarah-Jo Sinnott, Dr Ian Douglas and co-applicant Heather Eames have been awarded a Wellcome Trust Biomedical Vacation Scholarship. This award provides funding for undergraduate students (Heather Eames) to gain practical experience of the research process during the summer break. The aim is to encourage students to consider a career in...

9 Mar

How useful are observational data for drug regulatory decision making?

09 Mar 2017

We have just been awarded a grant by the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry to determine how observational research using electronic health records is used in the regulatory decision making process in Europe. Every year, many studies about drug risks and benefits are published, and they often rely on the use of electronic health records. What we don’t know is how useful these...

23 Jan

Real World Effectiveness of Medications for COPD

23 Jan 2017

We have recently been awarded a three year grant by the UK National Institute for Health Research to study how well medication for COPD works in routine clinical care, and in particular in patients not normally studied in randomised trials. To do this, we’ll be using primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked with Hospital Episode Statistics data. A novel and exciting...

24 Jun

New Paper: Recent Trends in ADHD medication use in UK

24 Jun 2016

Over the last 20 years, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) throughout the world have been increasingly treated with medication. This study used primary care prescribing records to look at ADHD medication trends in the UK. We found large increases in the use of ADHD medication between 1992 and 2008, with usage levels then becoming stable since 2008. This paper is...