Chronic kidney disease and cause-specific hospitalisation: a matched cohort study using primary and secondary care patient data.

Iwagami, M. ; Caplin, B. ; Smeeth, L. ; Tomlinson, L.A. ; Nitsch, D. ;
Chronic kidney disease and cause-specific hospitalisation: a matched cohort study using primary and secondary care patient data.
Br J Gen Pract, 2018;

Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with various outcomes, the burden of each condition for hospital admission is unknown.

To quantify the association between CKD and cause-specific hospitalisation.

A matched cohort study in primary care using Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics in England.

Patients with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for ≥3 months) and a comparison group of patients without known CKD (matched for age, sex, GP, and calendar time) were identified, 2004-2014. Outcomes were hospitalisations with 10 common conditions as the primary admission diagnosis: heart failure; urinary tract infection; pneumonia; acute kidney injury (AKI); myocardial infarction; cerebral infarction; gastrointestinal bleeding; hip fracture; venous thromboembolism; and intracranial bleeding. A difference in the incidence rate of first hospitalisation for each condition was estimated between matched patients with and without CKD. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate a relative risk for each outcome.

In a cohort of 242 349 pairs of patients, with and without CKD, the rate difference was largest for heart failure at 6.6/1000 person-years (9.7/1000 versus 3.1/1000 person-years in patients with and without CKD, respectively), followed by urinary tract infection at 5.2, pneumonia at 4.4, and AKI at 4.1/1000 person-years. The relative risk was highest for AKI with a fully adjusted hazard ratio of 4.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.47 to 5.38, followed by heart failure with 1.66, 95% CI = 1.59 to 1.75.

Hospitalisations for heart failure, infection, and AKI showed strong associations with CKD in absolute and(or) relative terms, suggesting targets for improved preventive care.